Find picture of the human rib cage

Most turtles have streamlined shells but there are some exceptions. Box turtles , for example, have a domed shell, as do Sonoran mud turtles and all tortoises.

Anatomical Variations

All turtles also have a gular scute , an extension of the lower shell that sticks out under the chin. Gular scutes are more pronounced in males, who use them as weapons to flip an opponent over in a fight , Madrak says. For some extra complication, there are two suborders of turtle whose classifications are based entirely on how they move their necks.

They turn their heads to the side and hide them under the rim of their shells for protection.

Rib Classifications

Sometimes misidentification could be fatal for the animal. In The Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission had three instances of people who had mistakenly released tortoise hatchlings into the ocean —where the land-dwelling creatures would likely drown. If you find a turtle you think is in distress, call your state fish and wildlife commission or another professional who can identify the species and will know how to handle the circumstances. The inner border is concave, thin, and sharp, and marked about its center by the scalene tubercle.

The anterior extremity is larger and thicker than that of any of the other ribs.

The second rib is the second uppermost rib in humans or second most frontal in animals that walk on four limbs. In humans, the second rib is defined as a true rib since it connects with the sternum through the intervention of the costal cartilage anteriorly at the front. Posteriorly, the second rib is connected with the vertebral column by the second thoracic vertebra. The second rib is much longer than the first rib , but has a very similar curvature. The non-articular portion of the tubercle is occasionally only feebly marked.

The angle is slight and situated close to the tubercle. The body is not twisted so that both ends touch any plane surface upon which it may be laid; but there is a bend, with its convexity upward, similar to, though smaller than that found in the first rib. The body is not flattened horizontally like that of the first rib. Its external surface is convex, and looks upward and a little outward; near the middle of it is a rough eminence for the origin of the lower part of the first and the whole of the second digitation of the serratus anterior; behind and above this is attached the posterior scalene.

The internal surface, smooth, and concave, is directed downward and a little inward: on its posterior part there is a short costal groove between the ridge of the internal surface of the rib and the inferior border. It protects the intercostal space containing the intercostal veins , intercostal arteries , and intercostal nerves. The ninth rib has a frontal part at the same level as the first lumbar vertebra.


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This level is called the transpyloric plane , since the pylorus is also at this level. The tenth rib attaches directly to the body of vertebra T10 instead of between vertebrae like the second through ninth ribs. Due to this direct attachment, vertebra T10 has a complete costal facet on its body.

The eleventh and twelfth ribs , the floating ribs , have a single articular facet on the head, which is of rather large size. They have no necks or tubercles, and are pointed at their anterior ends.

The eleventh has a slight angle and a shallow costal groove, whereas the twelfth does not. The twelfth rib is much shorter than the eleventh rib, and its head is inclined slightly downward. The sternum is a long, flat bone that forms the front of the rib cage. The cartilages of the top seven ribs the true ribs join with the sternum at the sternocostal joints. The costal cartilage of the second rib articulates with the sternum at the sternal angle making it easy to locate.

The transversus thoracis muscle is innervated by one of the intercostal nerves and superiorly attaches at the posterior surface of the lower sternum. Its inferior attachment is the internal surface of costal cartilages two through six and works to depress the ribs. Expansion of the rib cage in males is caused by the effects of testosterone during puberty.

Variations in the number of ribs occur. About 1 in people have an additional cervical rib , and there is a female predominance. In several ethnic groups, most significantly the Japanese, the tenth rib is sometimes a floating rib , as it lacks a cartilaginous connection to the seventh rib.

Study reconstructs Neandertal ribcage, offers new clues to ancient human anatomy

The human rib cage is a component of the human respiratory system. It encloses the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs. An inhalation is accomplished when the muscular diaphragm , at the floor of the thoracic cavity, contracts and flattens, while the contraction of intercostal muscles lift the rib cage up and out. Expansion of the thoracic cavity is driven in three planes; the vertical, the anteroposterior and the transverse. The vertical plane is extended by the help of the diaphragm contracting and the abdominal muscles relaxing to accommodate the downward pressure that is supplied to the abdominal viscera by the diaphragm contracting.

A greater extension can be achieved by the diaphragm itself moving down, rather than simply the domes flattening. The second plane is the anteroposterior and this is expanded by a movement known as the ' pump handle.


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When the external intercostal muscles contract and lift the ribs, the upper ribs are able also to push the sternum up and out. This movement increases the anteroposterior diameter of the thoracic cavity, and hence aids breathing further. The third, transverse, plane is primarily expanded by the lower ribs some say it is the 7th to 10th ribs in particular , with the diaphragm's central tendon acting as a fixed point.

When the diaphragm contracts, the ribs are able to evert and produce what is known as the bucket handle movement , facilitated by gliding at the costovertebral joints. In this way, the transverse diameter is expanded and the lungs can fill. Rib fractures are the most common injury to the rib cage. These most frequently affect the middle ribs. When several adjacent ribs incur two or more fractures each, this can result in a flail chest which is a life-threatening condition.

A dislocated rib can be painful and can be caused simply by coughing, or for example by trauma or lifting heavy weights. One or more costal cartilages can become inflamed — a condition known as costochondritis ; the resulting pain is similar to that of a heart attack. Abnormalities of the rib cage include pectus excavatum "sunken chest" and pectus carinatum "pigeon chest". A bifid rib is a bifurcated rib, split towards the sternal end, and usually just affecting one of the ribs of a pair.

It is a congenital defect affecting about 1. It is often without symptoms though respiratory difficulties and other problems can arise. Rib removal is the surgical removal of one or more ribs for therapeutic or cosmetic reasons.

Causes of Chest Wall Tumors

Rib resection is the removal of part of a rib. This cage gives the chest its familiar barrel-like shape. The last diagram shows how the ribs are connected to the vertebral column or spine. This securely holds the ribs in place at the back.

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The ribs serve several important purposes. They protect the heart and lungs from injuries and shocks that might damage them.

Ribs also protect parts of the stomach, spleen, and kidneys. The ribs help you to breathe. As you inhale, the muscles in between the ribs lift the rib cage up, allowing the lungs to expand. When you exhale, the rib cage moves down again, squeezing the air out of your lungs. Top of Page.